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The untold spy story of WWI

In 1910 a proposed Alliance between Germany and France (See New York Times Article ) worried Britain so they sent someone to 'sniff around'.

The story is a personal journey of discovery set in the vibrant energy that is Zanzibar. Susan finds herself in the palace of the great Sultan of Zanzibar as private tutor to his children. She immerses herself in the heady experiences of that rich island. From making friends with her personal servant, Subira, to falling in love with Asim, a senior member of the Sultan's court. Susan delights in the discovery of Zanzibar and the discovery of herself. The only shadow being that she was recruited by British Military Intelligence as a spy. That compromises her love for Asim and will eventually cut the silken thread that is her journey into the exotic.

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The Four Structures of Chinese Characters

 

 

The Four Structure Styles of Chinese Characters

1. Single Structure
2. Up and Down Structure
3. Left and Right Structure
4. Inside and outside Structure

 

 

 

Notes: some Chinese character has more parts, but we judge its structure according to its main part. For example:

森 Forest -- the main structure is up and down. Its down part is a left and right structure.
架 Frame -- the main structure is up and down. Its upper part is a left and right structure.

Second, The Components of Chinese Characters -- Pian Pang

We call the different parts in a Chinese character "Pian Pang character components.

Except for the single structure Chinese characters, the other ones are all made up of different components.

 

Thirdly, the Indexing Component( Radicals) of Chinese Characters -- Bushou

For helping people to check a Chinese character in a dictionary as soon as possible. The scholars who edited the dictionary made the characters that have a same part (radical) together, as a subdivision, then, to take the same part as the first character of this subdivision. This character is called the indexing component

They choose a part of character component that is same in many characters as the indexing components.

For example:

 

 

 

The Strokes of Chinese Characters

There are 8 basic strokes, that are used to write thousands and thousands Chinese Characters

The other 31 strokes of the Bi Hua are made of of these 8 basic strokes

 

A more detailed Explanation:

Character Stroke Order Basic Rules

Writing characters in the correct stroke order can greatly facilitate learning and memorization. Correct stroke order is also vital to produce visually appealing characters. There are minor stroke order discrepancies between simplified and traditional Chinese characters. In this system, the stroke orders for simplified Chinese characters are strictly based on 《 》 (Modern Chinese Commonly Used Character Stroke Order Standard) published by (China National Language And Character Working Committee and General Administration of Press and Publication of the Peoples' Republic of China) in 1997. For traditional Chinese characters, which is used in Taiwan and Hong Kong, Arch Chinese follows the standard issued by Taiwan Ministry of Education.

Traditionally, Chinese is written in vertical columns from top to bottom; the text runs from the right toward the left of the page. Modern Chinese uses the familiar western layout of horizontal rows from left to right, read from the top of the page to the bottom. To facilitate the horizontal writing, the stroke order of some characters were changed. That is one of the reasons there are minor differences between the two standards. However, both standards were devised to help speed, fluidity, and accuracy in composition. The basic rules of stroke order remain the same.

  1. From top to bottom ()
  2. From left to right ()
  3. Horizontal before vertical ()
  4. Diagonals right-to-left before diagonals left-to-right ( )
  5. Outside before inside ()
  6. Inside before outside ()
  7. Inside before bottom enclosing ( )
  8. Center verticals before outside "wings" ( )
  9. Cutting strokes last ( )
  10. Left vertical before enclosing ( )
  11. Top or upper-left dots first ( )
  12. Inside or upper-right dots last ( )



1. From top to bottom ()

As an example, the character (two), which has two strokes, is written with the top stroke first and then the lower stroke. This rule applies also to other characters with Above to Below structure, such as , the top component is written before the lower component . Click the following characters to see more animated character examples: , , , , , , , etc.

2. From left to right ()

Among the first characters usually learned is the number one . This character has one stroke which is written from left to right. Again, this rule applies to all the characters with Left to Right structure such as (leaf), the left component (mouth), which is a radical, is written first and then the right component (ten). You can view more examples: , , , , , , , etc.

3. Horizontal before vertical ()

When strokes cross, horizontal strokes are usually written before vertical strokes. As an example, the character (ten) has two strokes. The horizontal stroke is written first, followed by the vertical stroke. The following are more examples: , , , , , , , etc

4. Diagonals right-to-left before diagonals left-to-right ( )

As in (person), right-to-left diagonals () are written before left-to-right diagonals (乀). Same rule applies to: , , , , , , , etc.

5. Outside before inside ()

Outside enclosing strokes are written before inside strokes, for examples , , , , etc. This rule applies to the characters with Surround from Upper Left structure (), such as , , , , or Surround from Upper Right structure (), such as , , , , or Surround from Above structure (), such as , , , .

6. Inside before outside ()

This rule applies to the characters with Surround from Below structure (), such as , , , or characters with Surround from Lower Left structure (), such as , , etc.

7. Inside before bottom enclosing ()

If there is a bottom stroke, the bottom stroke is written last. For an example, for the character , the outside enclosing strokes are written first, followed by the inside component and then the bottom horizontal stroke. The same pattern you can find in , , , , etc.

8. Center verticals before outside "wings"( )

For the character , the center comes first before the two dots. Same rule applies to character , , , , etc.

9. Cutting strokes last ( )

Vertical strokes that "cut" through a character are written after the horizontal strokes they cut through, as in , , .

10. Left vertical before enclosing ( )

Left vertical strokes are written before enclosing strokes. In the following two examples, the leftmost vertical stroke () is written first, followed by the uppermost and rightmost lines () (which are written as one stroke): and . This rule applies to most of the characters with Full Surround structure, such as , , , , etc.

11. Top or upper-left dots first ( )

For examples, in character , , , , , the dots are written before any other strokes.

12. Inside or upper-right dots last ( )

For examples, in character , , , etc, the dots are written last.